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Science & Research

Invent, experiment and push the boundaries of discovery with a career in science and research.

What is a career in science and research like?

Building, creating, investigating: these are just a few of the exciting functions of a scientist. 

Scientists, technologists, engineers and mathematicians all use technical expertise and methodologies to test theories, invent new things and generally discover more about the world around us.

Scientists develop new chemicals, foods, drugs and materials, investigate disease and the environmental impacts of pollution, develop software, help our buildings stay standing, explore the universe and even predict the weather. 

For scientists, research and analysis skills are key. The world is constantly changing, new things are discovered each day, and theories that people thought were set in stone can be turned upside down by new evidence.

Look in almost all of our Career Zones and you are likely to find a host of science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) based jobs. But we’ve developed a special section here to show you just how far a science career can take you.

If you're interested in a career in Science & Research, you should also check out our Medicine & Healthcare Career Zone.

What science and research careers can I do?

STEM jobs can be found in labs, factories, offices or in the great outdoors. There's a huge range of options! We've included just a sample of some of the roles below, so for more, make sure to read Jobs in science: what are they and how can I get one?

Here are some of the main areas you can work in with science-based qualifications...

Biologists and environmental scientists study life and all living things that move, breathe and reproduce. They use their knowledge to investigate the natural world, including nutrition, ecosystems, how disease spreads, how to improve and protect plants and crops and the impacts of environmental changes, like pollution or deforestation. As a biologist you can specialise in many different areas. For example, oceanographers study life under the sea and zoologists study how animals behave. You could even find the vaccine against the next pandemic virus.

Learn more: Why study biology?

Biomedical scientists do different scientific tests to help diagnose and treat diseases. They investigate how cells and organs function in the human body. Find out more about how to become a biomedical scientist

Chemists experiment with materials and the elements to see how they work in different conditions and find out what they are made up of right down to the tiniest particle. The results can sometimes be explosive…

Chemists develop medicines, foods, fabrics and other materials, from neon lights to stainless steel.

Learn more: Why study chemistry?

Economists study economies (the flow of goods, services and money in a network), from businesses to entire countries. They predict how economies will grow (or decline) and identify why this happens. They can also predict when people may lose their jobs or when average incomes will go up and develop theories to help boost an economy or avoid future problems. It's a vital job in these times of economic turbulence.

Engineers use their use their scientific, mathematical and design know-how to find practical ways to make our structures, technology and machines faster, stronger, safer and better looking.

For more on these jobs see our Engineering Career Zone.

Forensic scientists investigate crime scenes for physical evidence to be used in court, including DNA testing, detecting chemicals, finding the source of a fire and testing people/places for drug use or contamination.

Geologists study the earth both outside and in. This includes rock, metals and all materials that naturally occur in the earth. Geologists look at how the earth behaves, including how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. They can use their skills to hunt for resources like oil and gas. They also dig deep to discover clues about what the world was like in the past, to find out things like how our climate has changed.

Mathematicians provide the building blocks for most scientific work; right down to the numbers and logic we need to produce formulas and calculations. Mathematicians look for patterns and try to define and measure essential ideas like time, quantity, speed, change and distance.

Physicists study how the universe works and find out the hidden rules that explain why all things exist and how they behave, like why we aren’t all floating about in the air right now. Physicists can specialise in lots of different areas from astronomy, which studies how planets and all the other phenomena in space behave, to nuclear physics, which studies how atoms interact.

Physicists can also work in: computer technology, robotics, space exploration and satellite technology, predicting the climate, engineering and finding new ways of capturing renewable energy.

Researchers can be found in all the fields of science. Their work can involve testing theories and developing new products, chemicals and medicines. Researchers also work to study human behaviour, social and economic trends, public opinion and the spread of disease.

Statisticians work with the data gathered from experiments, surveys and reports to discover patterns, predict changes and try to discover the cause of things.

Is a career in science and research for me?

People with STEM skills are in serious demand — in fact, there is currently a shortage of STEM skills. STEM skills include things like data analysis and interpreting statistics. But you might be surprised to learn that there are other very important skills to develop if you'd like a career in science and research. These include problem solving, creativity, debating and communication

So when considering whether science is the career for you, try to answer these questions... Are you curious? Do you enjoy thinking about how things work? Do you take a creative approach to solving problems? 

Scientists and mathematicians can spend a lot of time gathering evidence or testing out theories before they get a result, so you'd also have to be patient and precise, with good attention to detail

Scientists tend to bee organised, analytical and logical. They need strong communication skills to explain their research and findings to others.

We've made a list of the characteristics you'll probably need if you're considering a job in science.

How can I start a career in science and research?

For both GCSE and A-level the key subjects are:

  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Computing
  • Maths
  • Physics

You can also add these to the mix:

  • Design and technology
  • Economics
  • Engineering
  • Further maths.

Relevant BTEC and other NQF qualifications include engineering, applied sciences, IT and environmental sustainability.

Studying a foreign language and/or an essay-based subject like English or history can help to boost your communication skills too.


More and more apprenticeships are becoming available in fields which would previously have required a university degree or even postgraduate qualification. These roles typically lead to a foundation, bachelor's or even a master's degree, gained while working a paid job. Jobs include: 

  • Bioinformatics scientist (level 7)
  • Biomedical scientist (level 6)
  • Clinical scientist (level 6)
  • Clinical pharmacology scientist (level 7)
  • Doctor (level 7)
  • Laboratory scientist (level 6)
  • Medical statistician (level 7)
  • Research scientist (level 7)
  • Technician scientist (level 5)


Most scientists and researchers need a university degree. There are many opportunities to work in academia.

If you want to become a true expert, you may need to take a postgraduate qualification like a master's or a PhD. Doctors, vets and most specialist scientists have PhD. This includes roles such as:

  • Biomedical scientist
  • Economist
  • Engineer
  • Research assistant
  • Social scientist
  • Zoologist

What science and research qualifications are available?

Many scientists will work toward master's degrees and PhD through their careers. There are also plenty of opportunities to gain professional qualifications, like as a medical professional or chartered scientist. Apprenticeships can now lead to postgraduate qualifications up to master's level.

Organisations, like the Institute of Science and Technology can provide training directly or through employers.

Did you know these science and research facts?

Sugru - an amazing, colourful rubbery stuff that sticks to anything - was invented by an art student with a great idea and a homemade lab. Read her amazing story here

There are 8 times as many atoms in a teaspoonful of water as there are teaspoonfuls of water in the Atlantic Ocean!

The average person walks the equivalent of five times around the world in a lifetime.

Hawaii is moving towards Japan at a rate of 10cm per year because they are on two different tectonic plates, which are pushing together. If they keep moving together at the same rate, it will take over 60 million years before you can hop from one to another on foot.

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